Conceptually-Political and Cultural Pluralism and Monism in 20th Century Slovenia
Keywords: political parties, Catholics, liberals and Marxists, world view, state, parliament, governments, political association, political culture, occupation, resistance, collaboration, international integrations, Austro‑Hungary, Yugoslavia, European Union
Period: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2020
Range in 2020: 5,2 FTE
Head: Dr Perovšek Jurij
Researchers: Dr Zdenko Čepič, Dr Filip Čuček, Dr Vida Deželak Barič, Dr Aleš Gabrič, Dr Jure Gašparič, Dr Bojan Godeša, Dr Damijan Guštin, Dr Jurij Hadalin, Marko Kupljen, Tjaša Konovšek, Maja Lukanc, Dr Marko Zajc
To date the research of the ideological, political and cultural history of Slovenians since the second half of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st century has focused on the most characteristic developmental processes, which defined the aforementioned areas of the Slovenian national history. The research has been carried out in the context of the historical substantiation of the process of the ideological‑political stratification in the Slovenian national movement in the second half of the 19th century; in the context of analysing the key periods and turning points, where the question of the ideological‑political and cultural pluralism and monism in the 20th century was most emphasised in Slovenia; and in the context of analysing the complexity of the issue of democracy and democratic values in the Slovenian historical experience since the 19th century until the accession of the Republic of Slovenia to the European Union in 2004.
The Slovenian historiography has not yet focused on the aforementioned issues from the viewpoint of the goal‑oriented research of the political institutions and party subjects in the individual historical periods. Therefore, simultaneously with the history of the state institutions the history of modern political parties since their formation in the end of the 19th century should also be analysed. For the period of World War II, this history will be analysed according to the division of the Slovenian space to the Catholic, liberal and Marxist ideological‑political side, traditional at the time. The main party representatives of these sides in the Austrian period and during the Kingdom of SHS/Yugoslavia will be analysed. The period of occupation (1941–1945) will be explored in view of the development of the Catholic and liberal politics as well as the Communist Party of Slovenia and their mutual interaction in the relation to the basic questions of that time (collaboration, resistance, revolution).
The time after World War II will be explored from the viewpoint of the political system of the party monism, characterising the social and political life of Slovenians in the second Yugoslav community. On these foundations the programme will focus on studying the development of the Communist Party of Slovenia or the League of Communists of Slovenia in the European comparative perspective (especially in comparison with the Eastern European communist parties). As of the appearance of new subjects in the end of the 1980s, which represented an opposition to the League of Communists of Slovenia, the programme will also focus on these subjects and on their subsequent coalition, Demos (Democratic Opposition of Slovenia). In the medium‑term period, the time after the establishment of the independent Republic of Slovenia until its accession to the EU will be analysed by focusing on the development of the most important contemporary political subjects and their integration into the Slovenian political system as well as the international political relations.
The comprehensive analysis of the ideological‑ and cultural‑political dynamics in the Slovenian contemporary history calls for a detailed study of the social, political and ideological subjects, propagators of the organised political life in Slovenia. These subjects, organised as political parties, were the most active in expressing the elements of the Slovenian social will, the quality of its historical maturity, and the understanding of the times. In this context a range of key factors came together: character, power and activity of individual political parties, their structural characteristics, and the questions they encountered (or opened) during their development. In the modern times political parties had a decisive influence on the relationship between individuals and community as well as on their ideological, political and cultural co‑dependence. A special exploration of the history of the political parties and their activities in the context of the state institutions, which is still an evident deficiency of the today's Slovenian historiography, is thus required in order to understand and therefore evaluate the past (and current) development. This gap should be filled, and in this way a new qualitative level in the development of the Slovenian historiography should be reached. These goals will result in a significant upgrade of the previous knowledge of the ideological‑political and cultural development in Slovenia since the end of the 19th century (with the remark that the other European nations have already written the history of their political‑party life many years ago). This will allow for further in‑depth and wider understanding of the various Slovenian historical positions and open new dimensions in the development of the Slovenian historical science.